Συμπτώματα εγκεφαλικού συνδρόμου ως μοναδική κλινική διαταραχή σε 2 σκύλους με νεοπλασία των ρινικών κοιλοτήτων.
Acute cerebral dysfunction as the sole clinical manifestation in 2 dogs with nasal cavity tumours.
Sinanis T.1, Polizopoulou Z.2, Soubasis N.1, Kasabalis D.4, Levi E.5, Patsikas M.1, Psalla D.3, Psychas V.3
Two dogs aged 8 (Case 1) and 5 (Case 2) years were presented with acute onset of blindness (Case 1 and 2), along with decreased appetite and depression (Case 1) and cognitive dysfunction (Case 2) of 10 days and 1 month duration, respectively. Neurological examination revealed dementia (Case 1 and 2), compulsive walking and circling to the right and head pressing (Case 1). Bilateral absence of menace and pupillary light reflexes were also noticed in both cases. Clinicopathological evaluation was unremarkable. Brain MRI showed (Case 1) the presence of abnormal signal foci, hypointense on T1, hyperintense on T2 and intermediate intensity FLAIR-weighted images involving the cranioventral part of the right nasal and ethmoid turbinates, extending through the cribriform plate to the frontal, parietal and temporal cerebral lobes and causing right-sided midline shift, compression of the right lateral ventricle and oedema. Cerebral lesions were ill-defined and involved mainly the white matter and basal nuclei. Contrast medium was not administered. These findings were interpreted as a primary nasal tumour with secondary cerebral invasion. During hospitalization this dog presented severe dyspnea, orthopnea, seizures and finally died. Euthanasia was carried out in Case 2, at the owner’s request and without further diagnostic investigation, because of poor prognosis.
Necropsy in Case 1 revealed occlusion of the right nasal cavity by a greyish solid mass, which infiltrated the ipsilateral ethmoidal and sphenoid bone, compressing the hypophysis and the optical chiasm and extending diffusely in the right frontal, parietal and temporal lobes. The histopathological diagnosis was transitional carcinoma. In Case 2, a neoplastic mass was found in the left nasal cavity, infiltrating the ethmoid bone and extending intracranially, with multiple solid nodules detected in both frontal cerebral lobes. Histopathological examination classified this tumour as an adenocarcinoma.
Nasal tumours with intracranial metastases usually manifest a variety of upper respiratory tract clinical signs prior to the appearance of neurological dysfunction. Nevertheless, the cases described here suggest that acute cerebral dysfunction may be their sole clinical manifestation and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dogs with intracranial disorders.